Right-left ventricular shape variations in tetralogy of Fallot: associations with pulmonary regurgitation

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2021 Oct 7;23(1):105. doi: 10.1186/s12968-021-00780-x.


Background: Relationships between right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) shape and function may be useful in determining optimal timing for pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). However, these are multivariate and difficult to quantify. We aimed to quantify variations in biventricular shape associated with pulmonary regurgitant volume (PRV) in rTOF using a biventricular atlas.

Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, a biventricular shape model was customized to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images from 88 rTOF patients (median age 16, inter-quartile range 11.8-24.3 years). Morphometric scores quantifying biventricular shape at end-diastole and end-systole were computed using principal component analysis. Multivariate linear regression was used to quantify biventricular shape associations with PRV, corrected for age, sex, height, and weight. Regional associations were confirmed by univariate correlations with distances and angles computed from the models, as well as global systolic strains computed from changes in arc length from end-diastole to end-systole.

Results: PRV was significantly associated with 5 biventricular morphometric scores, independent of covariates, and accounted for 12.3% of total shape variation (p < 0.05). Increasing PRV was associated with RV dilation and basal bulging, in conjunction with decreased LV septal-lateral dimension (LV flattening) and systolic septal motion towards the RV (all p < 0.05). Increased global RV radial, longitudinal, circumferential and LV radial systolic strains were significantly associated with increased PRV (all p < 0.05).

Conclusion: A biventricular atlas of rTOF patients quantified multivariate relationships between left-right ventricular morphometry and wall motion with pulmonary regurgitation. Regional RV dilation, LV reduction, LV septal-lateral flattening and increased RV strain were all associated with increased pulmonary regurgitant volume. Morphometric scores provide simple metrics linking mechanisms for structural and functional alteration with important clinical indices.

Keywords: Atlases; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Myocardial deformation; Tetralogy of Fallot; Ventricular function.