Conservative management of malignant gastric outlet obstruction syndrome-evidence based evaluation of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroentero-anastomosis

World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2021 Sep 15;13(9):1086-1098. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v13.i9.1086.


Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a clinical syndrome characterized by postprandial vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating and, in advanced cases, by weight loss secondary to inadequate oral intake. This clinical entity may be caused by mechanical obstruction, either benign or malignant, or by motility disorders. In this review we will focus on malignant GOO and on its endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided palliative treatment. The most frequent malignant causes of this syndrome are gastric and locally advanced pancreatic carcinomas; other causes include duodenal or ampullary neoplasms, gastric lymphomas, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathies and, more infrequently, gallbladder and bile duct cancers. Surgery represents the treatment of choice when radical and curative resection is potentially feasible; if the malignant cause is not likely to be completely resected, palliative treatments should be proposed. Palliative treatments for malignant GOO are primarily based on surgical gastro-jejunostomy and endoscopic placement of an enteral self-expanding metal stent. Both treatments are effective; however, endoscopic stent placement is less invasive and it is associated with good short-term results, while surgery provides longer-lasting effects with a lower frequency of reintervention. In the last few years, EUS-guided gastroenterostomy (GE) has been proposed as palliative treatment for malignant GOO. This novel technique consists of the creation of an anastomosis between the gastric lumen and a small bowel loop distal to the malignant obstruction, through the deployment of a lumen-apposing metal stent under EUS-view. EUS-GE has the advantage of being as minimally invasive as enteral stent placement, and of guaranteeing long-term results similar to those of surgery.

Keywords: Endoscopic ultrasound; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy; Enteric anastomosis; Gastric outlet obstruction; Lumen-apposing metal stents.

Publication types

  • Review