Investigating Feature Ranking Methods for Sub-Band and Relative Power Features in Motor Imagery Task Classification

J Healthc Eng. 2021 Sep 27;2021:3928470. doi: 10.1155/2021/3928470. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Interpreting the brain commands is now easier using brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies. Motor imagery (MI) signal detection is one of the BCI applications, where the movements of the hand and feet can be recognized via brain commands that can be further used to handle emergency situations. Design of BCI techniques encountered challenges of BCI illiteracy, poor signal to noise ratio, intersubject variability, complexity, and performance. The automated models designed for emergency should have lesser complexity and higher performance. To deal with the challenges related to the complexity performance tradeoff, the frequency features of brain signal are utilized in this study. Feature matrix is created from the power of brain frequencies, and newly proposed relative power features are used. Analysis of the relative power of alpha sub-band to beta, gamma, and theta sub-band has been done. These proposed relative features are evaluated with the help of different classifiers. For motor imagery classification, the proposed approach resulted in a maximum accuracy of 93.51% compared to other existing approaches. To check the significance of newly added features, feature ranking approaches, namely, mutual information, chi-square, and correlation, are used. The ranking of features shows that the relative power features are significant for MI task classification. The chi-square provides the best tradeoff between accuracy and feature space. We found that the addition of relative power features improves the overall performance. The proposed models could also provide quick response having reduced complexity.