Asthma, atopic dermatitis and chronic rhinoconjunctivitis are highly heterogeneous. However, epidemiologic associations exist between phenotypic groups of patients. Atopic march is one such association but is not the only common point. Indeed, beyond such phenotypes, hallmarks of type 2 immunity have been found in these diseases involving immune dysregulation as well as environmental triggers and epithelial dysfunction. From the canonical Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), new cellular and molecular actors arise, from the epithelium's alarmins to new innate immune cells. Their interactions are now better understood across the different environmental barriers, and slight differences appeared. In parallel, the development of type 2-targeting biotherapies not only raised hope to treat those diseases but also raised new questions regarding their true pathophysiological involvement. Here, we review the place of type 2 immunity in the different phenotypes of asthma, chronic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and atopic dermatitis, highlighting nuances between them. New hypotheses rising from the use of biotherapies will be discussed along with the uncertainties and unmet needs of this field.
© 2021 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.