The association between coffee consumption and periodontitis: a cross-sectional study of a northern German population

Clin Oral Investig. 2022 Mar;26(3):2421-2427. doi: 10.1007/s00784-021-04208-9. Epub 2021 Oct 7.


Background: Positive and negative influences on oral health are attributed to coffee consumption. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and periodontitis in the general population of Hamburg.

Methods: A total of 6,209 participants from the Hamburg City Health Study were included in this cross-sectional study. Information on coffee consumption was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. Periodontal examination included assessment of dental care ability via Plaque Index, measurement of pocket depth, gingival recession, and bleeding on probing. Classification was based on the criteria of Eke and Page. Ordinal logistic regression models were performed unadjusted and adjusted for confounding variables.

Results: Periodontal cohort consists of 6,209 participants, presenting either none/mild (n = 1,453, 39.6% men, 2.4% strong coffee drinkers), moderate (n = 3,580, 49.3% men, 3.3% strong coffee drinkers), or severe (n = 1,176, 60.9% men, 5.0% strong coffee drinkers) periodontitis. There was a significant association between strong coffee consumption (≥ 7or more cups/day) and periodontitis (OR: 1.51; CI: 1.07, 2.12; p > 0.001), compared with low coffee consumption. Conversely, moderate coffee consumption was not associated with periodontitis, compared with low coffee consumption.

Conclusion: and clinical relevance. In this cross-sectional study of a northern German population, strong coffee consumption was significantly associated with periodontitis. Influence of changes in coffee consumption on periodontal disease etiology/progression should be investigated in future prospective study designs, in order to identify strong coffee consumption as a potential risk factor of periodontitis.

Keywords: Coffee; Confounding factors; Cross-sectional studies; Epidemiologic; Gingival pocket; Gingival recession; Oral health; Periodontitis.

MeSH terms

  • Coffee / adverse effects
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Periodontal Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Periodontitis* / epidemiology


  • Coffee