An artificial corneal transplant (keratoprosthesis, KPro) is the only procedure to restore sight for patients with end-stage corneal blindness after multiple failed corneal transplants, severe eye burns, autoimmune-related and cicatricial keratoconjunctival diseases. At present, the representative KPros are Boston KPros and Russian MICOF KPros. They have been used for patients worldwide for nearly 30 years, and the success rate in two years after surgery reaches up to 85%. With the approval of the collar button design KPro (Boston Ⅰ-like artificial cornea) for marketing and the completion of clinical trials of the Miok KPro (MICOF-like artificial cornea) in China, domestic artificial corneas will bring Chinese patients with end-stage corneal blindness opportunities for recovery of eyesight. There are many differences between the KPro procedure and conventional corneal transplantation. In order to standardize the use of domestic KPros in clinical practice and reduce perioperative complications, the Cornea Group of Ophthalmoloy Branch of Chinese Medical Association convened meetings of experts with extensive experience in this field, and a consensus has been reached on the surgical indications, operating specifications, perioperative medication and complication management targeting domestic KPro procedure to guide the performance of artificial corneal transplantation in China. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 727-733).