Objective: Epidemiological data suggest that moderate habitual coffee consumption associates with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however scarce data exist regarding the association of coffee with subclinical vascular disease (SVD). We aimed at investigating the above association with habitual instant coffee consumption - a widely consumed coffee in Greece-in high CVD risk but free of established CVD adults.
Research methods & procedures: In a cross-sectional design study we measured: (i) two 24 h dietary recalls to assess coffee consumption, (ii) arterial stiffness, by carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity - (PWV) and carotid compliance, arterial remodeling by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), pressure wave reflection by augmentation index (AIx) and atheromatosis by carotid plaques.
Results: In 1041 participants (55.6% females, 53.6 ± 14.0 years), 30% habitually consumed instant coffee (0.53 ± 1.15 cups/day). Consumption of instant coffee was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (β = -1.19, p = 0.007), AIx (β = -0.71, p = 0.043), PWV (β = -0.22, p = 0.000) and IMT (β = -0.01, p = 0.025), but these associations lost their significance after multiple adjustments for confounders. Instant coffee consumption was positively associated with carotid compliance independent from all possible confounders (β = 0.005, p = 0.003).
Conclusion: Habitual moderate instant coffee consumption is inversely associated with arterial stiffening and potential with arterial remodeling. These favorable vascular associations offer a potential pathophysiological link between habitual coffee consumption and lower incidence of CVD. Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of habitual instant coffee consumption on vascular structure and function.
Keywords: Arterial stiffness; Atheromatosis; Cardiovascular disease; Instant coffee.
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