Habitual consumption of instant coffee is favorably associated with arterial stiffness but not with atheromatosis

Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Oct;45:363-368. doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.07.018. Epub 2021 Aug 10.


Objective: Epidemiological data suggest that moderate habitual coffee consumption associates with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however scarce data exist regarding the association of coffee with subclinical vascular disease (SVD). We aimed at investigating the above association with habitual instant coffee consumption - a widely consumed coffee in Greece-in high CVD risk but free of established CVD adults.

Research methods & procedures: In a cross-sectional design study we measured: (i) two 24 h dietary recalls to assess coffee consumption, (ii) arterial stiffness, by carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity - (PWV) and carotid compliance, arterial remodeling by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), pressure wave reflection by augmentation index (AIx) and atheromatosis by carotid plaques.

Results: In 1041 participants (55.6% females, 53.6 ± 14.0 years), 30% habitually consumed instant coffee (0.53 ± 1.15 cups/day). Consumption of instant coffee was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (β = -1.19, p = 0.007), AIx (β = -0.71, p = 0.043), PWV (β = -0.22, p = 0.000) and IMT (β = -0.01, p = 0.025), but these associations lost their significance after multiple adjustments for confounders. Instant coffee consumption was positively associated with carotid compliance independent from all possible confounders (β = 0.005, p = 0.003).

Conclusion: Habitual moderate instant coffee consumption is inversely associated with arterial stiffening and potential with arterial remodeling. These favorable vascular associations offer a potential pathophysiological link between habitual coffee consumption and lower incidence of CVD. Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of habitual instant coffee consumption on vascular structure and function.

Keywords: Arterial stiffness; Atheromatosis; Cardiovascular disease; Instant coffee.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
  • Coffee*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pulse Wave Analysis
  • Vascular Stiffness*


  • Coffee