Background: Prospective studies describe a linkage between increased sodium intake and higher incidence of cardiovascular organ damage and end points. We analyzed whether tissue sodium content in the skin and muscles correlate with vascular hypertrophic remodeling, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Methods: In patients with type 2 diabetes we assessed tissue sodium content and vascular structural parameters of the retinal arterioles. The structural parameters of retinal arterioles assessed by Scanning Laser Doppler Flowmetry were vessel (VD) and lumen diameter (LD), wall thickness (WT), wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) and wall cross sectional area (WCSA). Tissue sodium content was measured with a 3.0 T clinical 23Sodium-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (23Na-MRI) system.
Results: In patients with type 2 diabetes (N = 52) we observed a significant correlation between muscle sodium content and VD (p = 0.005), WT (p = 0.003), WCSA (p = 0.002) and WLR (p = 0.013). With respect to skin sodium content a significant correlation has been found with VD (p = 0.042), WT (p = 0.023) and WCSA (p = 0.019). Further analysis demonstrated that tissue sodium content of skin and muscle is a significant determinant of hypertrophic vascular remodeling independent of age, gender, diuretic use and 24-hour ambulatory BP.
Conclusion: With the 23Na-MRI technology we could demonstrate that high tissue sodium content is independently linked to hypertrophic vascular remodeling in type 2 diabetes.
Trial registration: Trial registration number: NCT02383238 Date of registration: March 9, 2015.
Keywords: (23)Na-MRI; Tissue sodium; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Vascular remodeling.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.