Tryptophan-Kynurenine Pathway in COVID-19-Dependent Musculoskeletal Pathology: A Minireview

Mediators Inflamm. 2021 Oct 5;2021:2911578. doi: 10.1155/2021/2911578. eCollection 2021.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract and lungs. Several studies have reported that the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is altered in COVID-19 patients. The tryptophan-kynurenine pathway plays a vital role in regulating inflammation, metabolism, immune responses, and musculoskeletal system biology. In this minireview, we surmise the effects of the kynurenine pathway in COVID-19 patients and how this pathway might impact muscle and bone biology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Diseases / etiology*
  • COVID-19 / complications*
  • Humans
  • Kynurenine / metabolism*
  • Muscular Diseases / etiology*
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / physiology
  • SARS-CoV-2*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Tryptophan / metabolism*


  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
  • Kynurenine
  • Tryptophan