Comprehensive characterization of tumor antigens is essential for the design of cancer immunotherapies, and mass spectrometry (MS)-based immunopeptidomics enables high-throughput identification of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide antigens in vivo. Here we construct an immunopeptidome atlas of human cancer through an extensive collection of 43 published immunopeptidomic datasets and standardized analysis of 81.6 million MS/MS spectra using an open search engine. Our analysis greatly expands the current knowledge of MHC-bound antigens, including an unprecedented characterization of post-translationally modified antigens and their cancer-association. We also perform systematic analysis of cancer-testis antigens, cancer-associated antigens, and neoantigens. We make all these data together with annotated MS/MS spectra supporting identification of each antigen in an easily browsable web portal named cancer antigen atlas (caAtlas). caAtlas provides a central resource for the selection and prioritization of MHC-bound peptides for in vitro HLA binding assay and immunogenicity testing, which will pave the way to eventual development of cancer immunotherapies.
Keywords: Cancer; Immunology; Proteomics.
© 2021 The Author(s).