Background: Complex parkinsonism is the commonest phenotype in late-onset PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to deeply characterize phenogenotypically PLA2G6-related parkinsonism in the largest cohort ever reported.
Methods: We report 14 new cases of PLA2G6-related parkinsonism and perform a systematic literature review.
Results: PLA2G6-related parkinsonism shows a fairly distinct phenotype based on 86 cases from 68 pedigrees. Young onset (median age, 23.0 years) with parkinsonism/dystonia, gait/balance, and/or psychiatric/cognitive symptoms were common presenting features. Dystonia occurred in 69.4%, pyramidal signs in 77.2%, myoclonus in 65.2%, and cerebellar signs in 44.6% of cases. Early bladder overactivity was present in 71.9% of cases. Cognitive impairment affected 76.1% of cases and psychiatric features 87.1%, the latter being an isolated presenting feature in 20.1%. Parkinsonism was levodopa responsive but complicated by early, often severe dyskinesias. Five patients benefited from deep brain stimulation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings included cerebral (49.3%) and/or cerebellar (43.2%) atrophy, but mineralization was evident in only 28.1%. Presynaptic dopaminergic terminal imaging was abnormal in all where performed. Fifty-four PLA2G6 mutations have hitherto been associated with parkinsonism, including four new variants reported in this article. These are mainly nontruncating, which may explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of childhood- and late-onset PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration. In five deceased patients, median disease duration was 13.0 years. Brain pathology in three cases showed mixed Lewy and tau pathology.
Conclusions: Biallelic PLA2G6 mutations cause early-onset parkinsonism associated with dystonia, pyramidal and cerebellar signs, myoclonus, and cognitive impairment. Early psychiatric manifestations and bladder overactivity are common. Cerebro/cerebellar atrophy are frequent magnetic resonance imaging features, whereas brain iron deposition is not. Early, severe dyskinesias are a tell-tale sign. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Keywords: NBIA; PLA2G6; PLAN; parkinsonism; systematic review.
© 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.