Bortezomib (Btz) shows robust efficacy in patients with multiple myeloma (MM); however, some patients experience suboptimal responses and show specific toxicities. Therefore, we attempted to identify specific HLA alleles associated with Btz-related toxicities and response to treatment. Eighty-two transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed MM enrolled in a phase II study (JCOG1105) comparing two less intensive melphalan, prednisolone, plus Btz (MPB) regimens were subjected to HLA typing. The frequency of each allele was compared between the groups, categorized based on toxicity grades and responses to MPB therapy. Among 82 patients, the numbers of patients with severe peripheral neuropathy (PN; grade 2 or higher), skin disorders (SD; grade 2 or higher), and pneumonitis were 16 (19.5%), 15 (18.3%), and 6 (7.3%), respectively. Complete response was achieved in 10 (12.2%) patients. Although no significant HLA allele was identified by multiple comparisons, several candidates were identified. HLA-B*40:06 was more prevalent in patients with severe PN than in those with less severe PN (odds ratio [OR] = 6.76). HLA-B*40:06 and HLA-DRB1*12:01 were more prevalent in patients with SD than in those with less severe SD (OR = 7.47 and OR = 5.55, respectively). HLA-DRB1*08:02 clustered in the group of patients with pneumonitis (OR = 11.34). Complete response was achieved in patients carrying HLA-DQB1*03:02, HLA-DQB1*05:01, and HLA-DRB1*01:01 class II alleles. HLA genotyping could help predict Btz-induced toxicity and treatment efficacy in patients with MM, although this needs further validation.
Keywords: HLA; Japanese; bortezomib; multiple myeloma; peripheral neuropathy.
© 2021 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.