Trends in Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Hospitalizations in the United States, 2002-2016

Curr Probl Cardiol. 2022 Dec;47(12):101005. doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2021.101005. Epub 2021 Oct 7.


ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) remains a major modern-day public health problem. We aimed to assess the demographic trends in STEMI related hospitalizations in the United States over a period of fifteen years. The nationwide inpatient sample was queried to obtain information of patients hospitalized with STEMI from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2016. Annual hospitalization rates were calculated and annual percentage change (APC) was evaluated using regression analysis. A total of 4,121,155 eligible patients were included in this analysis. Overall, the total number of STEMI hospitalization decreased from 421,043 in 2002 to 208,510 in 2016 (P-trend <0.01). With the decreasing trend, the rate was relatively higher among males as compared to females, whites as compared to non-whites, and lower as compared to high socioeconomic status (SES). The rate of PCI in STEMI patients increased from 32.8% in 2002 to 67.8% in 2016 (APC = 5.392%, 95% CI [4.384-6.411], P < 0.001), but was higher among males as compared to females, urban as compared to rural hospitals and higher as compared to lower SES. In-hospital mortality decreased from 11% in 2002 to 10.5% in 2016 (APC = -0.771%, 95% CI [-1.230 to -0.311], P = 0.003), but remained higher among females, rural hospitals and low SES as compared to their correspondent groups. Among STEMI patients, the prevalence of individual comorbidities was noted to be increasing over the study period. Although there has been a declining trend in the number of STEMI hospitalizations, patients with modifiable risk factors presenting with STEMI has been on the rise. Females, rural communities and lower SES groups need special attention because of greater vulnerability.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*
  • Risk Factors
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / epidemiology
  • ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction* / therapy
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology