Effect of environment and field management strategies on phenolic acid profiles of hard red winter wheat genotypes

J Sci Food Agric. 2022 Apr;102(6):2424-2431. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.11581. Epub 2021 Oct 25.


Background: Integrated wheat management strategies can affect grain yield and flour end-use properties. However, the effect of integrated management and its interaction with environmental factors on the phenolic acid profiles of wheat has not been reported. The phenolic acid profile has become another parameter for the evaluation of wheat quality due to its potential health benefits.

Results: Year × location × management and year × management × genotype interactions were significant for the total phenolic content (TPC) of wheat samples. The year × location × management × genotype interaction was significant for the concentration of trans-ferulic acid and several other phenolic acids. Field management practices with no fungicide application (e.g., farmer's practice, enhanced fertility) may lead to increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, especially for WB4458, which is more susceptible to fungi infection. However, this effect was also related to growing year and location. Higher soil nitrogen content at sowing also seems to affect the TPC and phenolic acid concentration positively.

Conclusion: Wheat phenolic acid profiles are affected by genotype, field management, environment, and their interactions. Intensified field management, in particular, may lead to decreased concentration of wheat phytochemicals. The level of naturally occurring nitrogen in the soil may also affect the accumulation of wheat phytochemicals. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: environment interaction; fertilizer application; fungicide application; integrated wheat managements; wheat phenolic acid profile.

MeSH terms

  • Genotype
  • Hydroxybenzoates*
  • Phenols
  • Triticum* / chemistry
  • Triticum* / genetics


  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • Phenols
  • phenolic acid