Melatonin, a vital hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, has been implicated in various physiological functions and in circadian rhythm regulation. Its role in the protection against the non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF), known to disrupt the body's oxidative/anti-oxidative balance, has been called into question due to inconsistent results observed across studies. This review provides the current state of knowledge on the interwoven relationship between melatonin, EMF, and oxidative stress. Based on synthesized evidence, we present a model that best describes the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of melatonin against RF/ELF-EMF induced oxidative stress. We show that the free radical scavenger activity of melatonin is enabled through reduction of the radical pair singlet-triplet conversion rate and the concentration of the triplet products. Moreover, this review aims to highlight the potential therapeutic benefits of melatonin against the detrimental effects of EMF, in general, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), in particular.
Keywords: Antioxidant system; Electrohypersensitivity; Electromagnetic field; Melatonin; Oxidative stress; Radical pair mechanism..
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