The expansion of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya in the past 15 years has ignited the need for active surveillance of common and neglected mosquito-borne infectious diseases. The surveillance should be designed to detect diseases and to provide relevant field-based data for developing and implementing effective control measures to prevent outbreaks before significant public health consequences can occur. Mosquitoes are important vectors of human and animal pathogens, and knowledge on their biodiversity and distribution in the Afrotropical region is needed for the development of evidence-based vector control strategies. Following a comprehensive literature search, an inventory of the diversity and distribution of mosquitoes as well as the different mosquito-borne diseases found in Cameroon was made. A total of 290 publications/reports and the mosquito catalogue website were consulted for the review. To date, about 307 species, four subspecies and one putative new species of Culicidae, comprising 60 species and one putative new species of Anopheles, 67 species and two subspecies of Culex, 77 species and one subspecies of Aedes, 31 species and one subspecies of Eretmapodites, two Mansonia, eight Coquillettidia, and 62 species with unknown medical and veterinary importance (Toxorhynchites, Uranotaenia, Mimomyia, Malaya, Hodgesia, Ficalbia, Orthopodomyia, Aedeomyia, and Culiseta and Lutzia) have been collected in Cameroon. Multiple mosquito species implicated in the transmission of pathogens within Anopheles, Culex, Aedes, Eretmapodites, Mansonia, and Coquillettidia have been reported in Cameroon. Furthermore, the presence of 26 human and zoonotic arboviral diseases, one helminthic disease, and two protozoal diseases has been reported. Information on the bionomics, taxonomy, and distribution of mosquito species will be useful for the development of integrated vector management programmes for the surveillance and elimination of mosquito-borne diseases in Cameroon.
Keywords: Arboviruses; Biodiversity; Cameroon; Distribution; Lymphatic filariasis; Malaria; Mosquito; Mosquito-borne diseases.
© 2021. The Author(s).