Thermal effect of a 445 nm diode laser on five dental implant systems: an in vitro study

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 11;11(1):20174. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99709-8.


The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the thermal effect of the 445 nm diode laser on five dental implant systems. In an ailing implant protocol, five commercial dental implant systems were subjected to 445 nm diode laser energy at different wattages [W], exposure times, and modes (continuous wave [CW] vs. pulsed and contact vs. non-contact) of laser beam delivery. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed the evaluation of irradiated implant surfaces. A total of 2880 temperature response curves were recorded. The 445 nm wavelength caused temperature increases of more than 10 °C at or above the 0.8 W power level working in CW mode for 5 s and in pulsed mode at 3 W for 20 s with 10% duty cycle. Highest rises in temperature were seen in the Straumann Pure ceramic implant, lowest in the Ankylos system. SEM analysis revealed no surface alteration in all systems in non-contact mode. The applied laser is not inherently safe for the decontamination of ailing implants. From the results of this study it was concluded that different dental implant materials and geometries show different temperature response curves when subjected to 445 nm diode laser energy. Clinicians ought to be aware of this. Therefore, manufacturers of laser devices should provide implant-specific laser parameters for the decontamination process. However, both laser irradiation systems can prevent harmful rises in temperature and surface alteration when used at moderate laser parameters.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Decontamination / methods*
  • Dental Implants / standards*
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Lasers, Semiconductor / therapeutic use*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Surface Properties
  • Temperature*
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Titanium / radiation effects


  • Dental Implants
  • Titanium