Risk factors for intraoperative endplate injury during minimally-invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 11;11(1):20149. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99751-6.

Abstract

During lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), unintended intraoperative endplate injury (IEPI) can occur and thereafter lead cage subsidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of IEPI during LLIF, and its predisposing factors. A retrospective review was conducted on consecutive patients (n = 186; mean age, 70.0 ± 7.6 years) who underwent LLIF at 372 levels. Patient's demographic and surgical data were compared between patients with and without IEPI. Also, the radiographic data of each level were compared between intact and IEPI segments. IEPI was identified at 76 levels (20.4%) in 65 patients. The incidences of IEPI at every 100 consecutive segments were not different. When 372 segments were analyzed independently, sagittal disc angle (DA) in the extended position (4.3° ± 3.6° at IEPI segments vs. 6.4° ± 4.0° at intact segments), the difference between sagittal DA in the extended position and cage angle (- 2.2° ± 4.0° vs. 0.0° ± 3.9°), and the difference between preoperative disc height and cage height (- 5.4 mm ± 2.4 mm vs. - 4.7 mm ± 2.0 mm) were different significantly. Also, endplate sclerosis was more common at intact segments than IEPI segments (33.2% vs. 17.3%). Multivariate analysis showed that male sex (odds ratio [OR] 0.160; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.036-0.704), endplate sclerosis (OR 3.307; 95% CI 1.450-8.480), and sagittal DA in the extended position (OR 0.674; 95% CI 0.541-0.840) were significant associated factors for IEPI. IEPI was correlated not with surgeon's experience, but with patient factors, such as sex, preoperative disc angle, and endplate sclerosis. Careful surgical procedures should be employed for patients with these predisposing factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / injuries*
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Postoperative Complications / pathology
  • Prognosis
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Spinal Fractures / epidemiology*
  • Spinal Fractures / etiology
  • Spinal Fractures / pathology
  • Spinal Fusion / adverse effects*