Larvicidal and repellent activity of N-methyl-1-adamantylamine and oleic acid a major derivative of bael tree ethanol leaf extracts against dengue mosquito vector and their biosafety on natural predator

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Oct 11. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-16219-w. Online ahead of print.


Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa belongs to the family Rutaceae is generally known as "bael fruit tree" occuring across the south Asian countries. The current investigation screened the main derivatives from crude ethanolic extracts of the Bael tree leaf and evaluated activity effects on the larvae and adults of Aedes aegypti (L.) Dengue vector mosquito and a non-target aquatic predator. The GC-MS results showed that the peak area was found to be profound in N-methyl-1-adamantaneacetamide (N-M 1a) followed by oleic acid (OA) with 63.08 and 11.43% respectively. The larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae and the crude Ex-Am showed prominent mortality rate (93.60%) at the maximum dosage of 100 ppm. The mortality rate of N-M 1a and OA was occurred at 10 ppm (97.73%) and 12 ppm (95.4%). The repellent activity was found to be prominent at crude Ex-Am (50 ppm) as compared to the pure compounds (N-m 1a and OA) with maximum protection time up to 210 min. The non-target screening of Ex-Am, N-M 1a, and OA on mosquito predator Tx. splendens showed that they are scarcely toxic even at the maximum dosage of 1000 ppm (34.13%), 100 ppm (27.3%), and 120 ppm (31.3%) respectively. Thus, the present investigation clearly proved that the crude Ex-Am and their major derivatives Nm 1-a and OA showed their acute larval toxicity as well as potential mosquito repellent against the dengue mosquito and eco-safety against the mosquito predator.

Keywords: Bael fruit; Bio-safety; Larvicide; Nm 1-a; Oleic acid; Repellent.