Psychometric Properties and Analysis of the Masculinity Barriers to Medical Care Scale Among Black, Indigenous, and White Men

Am J Mens Health. 2021 Sep-Oct;15(5):15579883211049033. doi: 10.1177/15579883211049033.


Non-Hispanic (NH) Black, American Indian/Alaska Native (Indigenous), and NH-White men have the highest colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates among all other racial/ethnic groups. Contributing factors are multifaceted, yet no studies have examined the psychometric properties of a comprehensive survey examining potential masculinity barriers to CRC screening behaviors among these populations. This study assessed the psychometric properties of our Masculinity Barriers to Medical Care (MBMC) Scale among NH-Black, Indigenous, and NH-White men who completed our web-based MBMC, Psychosocial Factors, and CRC Screening Uptake & Intention Survey. We conducted exploratory factor analysis on a sample of 254 men and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) on a separate sample of 637 men nationally representative by age and state of residence. After psychometric assessment, the MBMC scale was reduced from 24 to 18 items and from six to four subscales. NH-Black men's mean scores were lowest on three of four subscales (Being Strong, Negative and Positive Attitudes) and highest on the Acknowledging Emotions subscale. Compared with both Indigenous and NH-White men, NH-Black men had significantly lower Negative Attitudes subscale scores and significantly higher scores on the Acknowledging Emotions subscale. Compared with both Indigenous and NH-Black men, NH-White men had significantly higher Being Strong and Positive Attitudes subscales scores. This study expands on previous research indicating that, among racialized populations of men, endorsement of traditional masculine ideologies influences engagement in preventive health behaviors. Our scale can be tailored to assess attitudes to screening for other cancers and diseases that disproportionately burden medically underserved populations.

Keywords: Alaska Native; American Indian; colonic neoplasms; factor analysis; gender identity; health disparities; men’s health.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Black or African American
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Masculinity*
  • Men*
  • Psychometrics