Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that involves an intricate and aberrant interaction of immune cells leading to inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. Due to the heterogeneity of clinical subtypes, their diagnosis becomes challenging and the best treatment cannot be easily provided to patients. Biomarkers have been used to simplify the diagnosis and prognosis of MS, as well as to evaluate the results of clinical treatments. In recent years, research on biomarkers has advanced rapidly due to their ability to be easily and promptly measured, their specificity, and their reproducibility. Biomarkers are classified into several categories depending on whether they address personal or predictive susceptibility, diagnosis, prognosis, disease activity, or response to treatment in different clinical courses of MS. The identified members indicate a variety of pathological processes of MS, such as neuroaxonal damage, gliosis, demyelination, progression of disability, and remyelination, among others. The present review analyzes biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood serum, the most promising imaging biomarkers used in clinical practice. Furthermore, it aims to shed light on the criteria and challenges that a biomarker must face to be considered as a standard in daily clinical practice.
Keywords: biomarkers; diagnostic; multiple sclerosis; predictive; prognosis; treatment response monitoring.