Antifungal Activity of Bacillus velezensis CE 100 against Anthracnose Disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and Growth Promotion of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Trees

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 28;22(19):10438. doi: 10.3390/ijms221910438.


Walnut anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a deleterious disease that severely affects the production of walnut (Juglans regia L.). The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal and growth promotion activities of Bacillus velezensis CE 100 as an alternative to chemical use in walnut production. The crude enzyme from B. velezensis CE 100 exhibited chitinase, protease, and β-l,3-glucanase activity and degraded the cell wall of C. gloeosporioides, causing the inhibition of spore germination and mycelial growth by 99.3% and 33.6% at 100 µL/mL, respectively. The field application of B. velezensis CE 100 culture broth resulted in a 1.3-fold and 6.9-fold decrease in anthracnose disease severity compared to the conventional and control groups, respectively. Moreover, B. velezensis CE 100 produced indole-3-acetic acid (up to 1.4 µg/mL) and exhibited the potential for ammonium production and phosphate solubilization to enhance the availability of essential nutrients. Thus, field inoculation of B. velezensis CE 100 improved walnut root development, increased nutrient uptake, enhanced chlorophyll content, and consequently improved total biomass by 1.5-fold and 2.0-fold compared to the conventional and control groups, respectively. These results demonstrate that B. velezensis CE 100 is an effective biocontrol agent against anthracnose disease and a potential plant growth-promoting bacteria in walnut tree production.

Keywords: auxin; lytic enzymes; nutrient uptake; phytopathogenic fungi; plant growth-promoting bacteria; root development.

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents* / chemistry
  • Antifungal Agents* / pharmacology
  • Bacillus / chemistry*
  • Colletotrichum / growth & development*
  • Complex Mixtures* / chemistry
  • Complex Mixtures* / pharmacology
  • Juglans* / growth & development
  • Juglans* / microbiology
  • Pest Control, Biological
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology*
  • Plant Roots* / growth & development
  • Plant Roots* / microbiology


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Complex Mixtures

Supplementary concepts

  • Bacillus velezensis
  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides