Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Defects in trophoblast invasion, differentiation of extravillous trophoblasts and spiral artery remodeling are key factors in PE development. Currently there are no predictive biomarkers clinically available for PE. Recent technological advancements empowered transcriptome exploration and led to the discovery of numerous non-coding RNA species of which microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the most investigated. They are implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, and as such are being extensively explored as potential biomarkers for various diseases. Altered expression of numerous lncRNAs and miRNAs in placenta has been related to pathophysiological processes that occur in preeclampsia. In the following text we offer summary of the latest knowledge of the molecular mechanism by which lnRNAs and miRNAs (focusing on the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC)) contribute to pathophysiology of PE development and their potential utility as biomarkers of PE, with special focus on sample selection and techniques for the quantification of lncRNAs and miRNAs in maternal circulation.
Keywords: biomarkers; lncRNA; microRNA; preeclampsia.