The Effect of Concurrent Resistance Training on Upper Body Strength, Sprint Swimming Performance and Kinematics in Competitive Adolescent Swimmers. A Randomized Controlled Trial

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Sep 29;18(19):10261. doi: 10.3390/ijerph181910261.


This study aimed to examine the effect of 9 weeks of concurrent resistance training (CRT) between resistance on dry land (bench press (BP) and medicine ball throw) and resistance in water (water parachute and hand paddles) on muscle strength, sprint swimming performance and kinematic variables compared by the usual training (standard in-water training). Twenty-two male competitive swimmers participated in this study and were randomly allocated to two groups. The CRT group (CRTG, age = 16.5 ± 0.30 years) performed a CRT program, and the control group (CG, age = 16.1 ± 0.32 years) completed their usual training. The independent variables were measured pre- and post-intervention. The findings showed that the one-repetition maximum bench press (1RM BP) was improved only after a CRT program (d = 2.18; +12.11 ± 1.79%). Moreover, all sprint swimming performances were optimized in the CRT group (d = 1.3 to 2.61; -4.22 ± 0.18% to -7.13 ± 0.23%). In addition, the findings revealed an increase in velocity and stroke rate (d = 1.67, d = 2.24; 9.36 ± 2.55%, 13.51 ± 4.22%, respectively) after the CRT program. The CRT program improved the muscle strength, which, in turn, improved the stroke rate, with no change in the stroke length. Then, the improved stroke rate increased the swimming velocity. Ultimately, a faster velocity leads to better swim performances.

Keywords: bench press; hand paddles; stroke rate; velocity; water parachute.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Athletic Performance*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Muscle Strength
  • Resistance Training*
  • Swimming