Exploring the Infiltration Features of Perovskite within Mesoporous Carbon Stack Solar Cells Using Broad Beam Ion Milling

Materials (Basel). 2021 Oct 6;14(19):5852. doi: 10.3390/ma14195852.


Carbon perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) are a popular photovoltaic technology currently undergoing extensive development on the global research scene. Whilst their record efficiency now rivals that of silicon PV in small-scale devices, C-PSCs still require considerable development to progress to a commercial-scale product. This study is the first of its kind to use broad beam ion milling for C-PSCs. It investigates how the carbon ink, usually optimised for maximum sheet conductivity, impacts the infiltration of the perovskite into the active layers, which in turn impacts the performance of the cells. Through the use of secondary electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infiltration defects were revealed relating to carbon flake orientation. The cross sections imaged showed between a 2% and 100% inactive area within the C-PSCs due to this carbon blocking effect. The impact of these defects on the performance of solar cells is considerable, and by better understanding these defects devices can be improved for mass manufacture.

Keywords: EDS; SEM; broad beam ion milling; infiltration; ion milling; mesoporous carbon stack; mesoscopic perovskite solar cell; perovskite.