Blockchain Technologies: Probability of Double-Spend Attack on a Proof-of-Stake Consensus

Sensors (Basel). 2021 Sep 25;21(19):6408. doi: 10.3390/s21196408.


Two double-spend attack strategies on a proof-of-stake consensus are considered. For each strategy, the probability of its success is obtained, which depends on the network parameters and the number of confirmation blocks. These results can be used to define how many confirmation blocks a vendor should wait after a correspondent transaction before sending goods or services.

Keywords: blockchain; consensus protocol; double spend attack; fork; proof-of-stake.

MeSH terms

  • Blockchain*
  • Consensus
  • Probability
  • Technology