IoT Intrusion Detection Taxonomy, Reference Architecture, and Analyses

Sensors (Basel). 2021 Sep 26;21(19):6432. doi: 10.3390/s21196432.


This paper surveys the deep learning (DL) approaches for intrusion-detection systems (IDSs) in Internet of Things (IoT) and the associated datasets toward identifying gaps, weaknesses, and a neutral reference architecture. A comparative study of IDSs is provided, with a review of anomaly-based IDSs on DL approaches, which include supervised, unsupervised, and hybrid methods. All techniques in these three categories have essentially been used in IoT environments. To date, only a few have been used in the anomaly-based IDS for IoT. For each of these anomaly-based IDSs, the implementation of the four categories of feature(s) extraction, classification, prediction, and regression were evaluated. We studied important performance metrics and benchmark detection rates, including the requisite efficiency of the various methods. Four machine learning algorithms were evaluated for classification purposes: Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Therefore, we compared each via the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The study model exhibits promising outcomes for all classes of attacks. The scope of our analysis examines attacks targeting the IoT ecosystem using empirically based, simulation-generated datasets (namely the Bot-IoT and the IoTID20 datasets).

Keywords: IoT architecture mapping; IoT security; anomaly-based IDS; deep learning; intrusion-detection systems (IDS); machine learning (ML).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Ecosystem
  • Internet of Things*
  • Neural Networks, Computer
  • Support Vector Machine