Longitudinal Bottom-Up Proteomics of Serum, Serum Extracellular Vesicles, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Reveals Candidate Biomarkers for Early Detection of Glioblastoma in a Murine Model

Molecules. 2021 Oct 2;26(19):5992. doi: 10.3390/molecules26195992.


Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a brain tumor with a poor prognosis and low survival rates. GBM is diagnosed at an advanced stage, so little information is available on the early stage of the disease and few improvements have been made for earlier diagnosis. Longitudinal murine models are a promising platform for biomarker discovery as they allow access to the early stages of the disease. Nevertheless, their use in proteomics has been limited owing to the low sample amount that can be collected at each longitudinal time point. Here we used optimized microproteomics workflows to investigate longitudinal changes in the protein profile of serum, serum small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a GBM murine model. Baseline, pre-symptomatic, and symptomatic tumor stages were determined using non-invasive motor tests. Forty-four proteins displayed significant differences in signal intensities during GBM progression. Dysregulated proteins are involved in cell motility, cell growth, and angiogenesis. Most of the dysregulated proteins already exhibited a difference from baseline at the pre-symptomatic stage of the disease, suggesting that early effects of GBM might be detectable before symptom onset.

Keywords: CSF; biomarkers; extracellular vesicles; glioblastoma; longitudinal; proteomics; serum.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Blood Proteins / analysis
  • Brain Neoplasms / blood*
  • Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins / analysis
  • Extracellular Vesicles / pathology
  • Female
  • Glioblastoma / blood*
  • Glioblastoma / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Male
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / blood
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology
  • Proteomics / methods*
  • Workflow


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Blood Proteins
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins