Effects of coalescence and isospin symmetry on the freezeout of light nuclei and their anti-particles

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 12;11(1):20252. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99455-x.


The transverse momentum spectra of light nuclei (deuteron, triton and helion) produced in various centrality intervals in Gold-Gold (Au-Au), Lead-Lead (Pb-Pb) and proton-Lead (p-Pb) collisions, as well as in inelastic (INEL) proton-proton (p-p) collisions are analyzed by the blast wave model with Boltzmann Gibbs statistics. The model results are nearly in agreement with the experimental data measured by STAR and ALICE Collaborations in special transverse momentum ranges. We extracted the bulk properties in terms of kinetic freezeout temperature, transverse flow velocity and freezeout volume. It is observed that deuteron and anti-deuteron freezeout later than triton and helion as well as their anti-particles due to its smaller mass, while helion and triton, and anti-helion and anti-triton freezeout at the same time due to isospin symmetry at higher energies. It is also observed that light nuclei freezeout earlier than their anti-nuclei due to the large coalescence of nucleons for light nuclei compared to their anti-nuclei. The kinetic freezeout temperature, transverse flow velocity and kinetic freezeout volume decrease from central to peripheral collisions. Furthermore, the transverse flow velocity depends on mass of the particle which decreases with increasing the mass of the particle.