In vivo study of light-driven naproxen release from gated mesoporous silica drug delivery system

Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 12;11(1):20191. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-99678-y.


A drug delivery system based on mesoporous particles MCM-41 was post-synthetically modified by photo-sensitive ligand, methyl-(2E)-3-(4-(triethoxysilyl)-propoxyphenyl)-2-propenoate (CA) and the pores of MCM-41 particles were loaded with Naproxen sodium salt (NAP). The CA was used as a photoactive molecule that can undergo a reversible photo-dimerization by [2π + 2π] cycloaddition when irradiated with UV light of specific wavelengths. Thus, it has a function of gate-keeper that is responsible for opening/closing the pores and minimizing premature release of NAP. The physicochemical properties of the prepared system were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), nitrogen adsorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The mechanism of the opening/closing pores was confirmed by UV measurements. In vitro and in vivo drug release experiments and the concentration of released NAP was determined by UV spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vivo drug release in the blood circulatory system of rats has demonstrated the effective photo-cleavage reaction of CA molecules after UV-light stimulation. The localization and morphological changes of the particles were studied in the blood and liver of rats at different time intervals. The particles in the blood have been shown to retain their original rod-like shape, and the particles in the liver have been hydrolysed, which has resulted in spherical shape with a reduced size.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drug Carriers / chemistry*
  • Drug Liberation
  • Male
  • Naproxen* / administration & dosage
  • Naproxen* / pharmacokinetics
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Silicon Dioxide / chemistry*
  • Solubility


  • Drug Carriers
  • Naproxen
  • Silicon Dioxide