Validation of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis as the Cause of End-Stage Renal Disease in the US Renal Data System

ACR Open Rheumatol. 2022 Jan;4(1):8-12. doi: 10.1002/acr2.11359. Epub 2021 Oct 12.


Objective: The objective of this study was to validate the diagnosis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) as the primary cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the US Renal Data System (USRDS).

Methods: We identified patients with ESRD in the Mass General Brigham (MGB) health care system who were enrolled in the USRDS. The health records of those with AAV listed as the primary cause of ESRD in the USRDS were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and estimate positive predictive value (PPV). Sensitivity was estimated by evaluating the primary cause of ESRD listed in the USRDS for patients with ESRD due to AAV in the MGB AAV cohort.

Results: We identified 89 MGB patients with ESRD due to AAV in the USRDS. Of these, 85 cases were confirmed to be true cases of AAV (PPV = 94%). Among the patients classified as having AAV, 84 (99%) had an ANCA test, which was predominantly myeloperoxidase/P-ANCA (47 [55%]); 36 (42%) had a renal biopsy, and all biopsies were supportive of the diagnosis. The majority (81 [90%]) was identified as AAV by International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision or International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes for granulomatosis with polyangiitis (446.4 or M313.1). Of the 77 MGB AAV cohort patients with ESRD who were linked to the USRDS, 41 (53%) had AAV listed as the cause of ESRD; in the remainder, ESRD was attributed to nonspecific nephritis.

Conclusion: The diagnosis of AAV as the cause of ESRD in the USRDS has a high PPV; sensitivity was moderate. These findings support the continued use of the USRDS to study ESRD due to AAV.