Temporal trends in patient characteristics, presumed causes, and outcomes following cardiogenic shock between 2005 and 2017: a Danish registry-based cohort study

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2021 Dec 6;10(9):1074-1083. doi: 10.1093/ehjacc/zuab084.


Aims: Most cardiogenic shock (CS) studies focus on acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Contemporary data on temporal trends in patient characteristics, presumed causes, treatments, and outcomes of ACS- and in particular non-ACS-related CS patients are sparse.

Methods and results: Using nationwide medical registries, we identified patients with first-time CS between 2005 and 2017. Cochrane-Armitage trend tests were used to examine temporal changes in presumed causes of CS, treatments, and outcomes. Among 14 363 CS patients, characteristics remained largely stable over time. As presumed causes of CS, ACS (37.1% in 2005 to 21.4% in 2017), heart failure (16.3% in 2005 to 12.0% in 2017), and arrhythmias (13.0% in 2005 to 10.9% in 2017) decreased significantly over time; cardiac arrest increased significantly (11.3% in 2005 to 24.5% in 2017); and changes in valvular heart disease were insignificant (11.5% in 2005 and 11.6% in 2017). Temporary left ventricular assist device, non-invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use increased significantly over time; intra-aortic balloon pump and mechanical ventilation use decreased significantly. Over time, 30-day and 1-year mortality were relatively stable. Significant decreases in 30-day and 1-year mortality for patients presenting with ACS and arrhythmias and a significant increase in 1-year mortality in patients presenting with heart failure were seen.

Conclusion: Between 2005 and 2017, we observed significant temporal decreases in ACS, heart failure, and arrhythmias as presumed causes of first-time CS, whereas cardiac arrest significantly increased. Although overall 30-day and 1-year mortality were stable, significant decreases in mortality for ACS and arrhythmias as presumed causes of CS were seen.

Keywords: Cardiogenic shock; Epidemiology; Mortality; Prognosis; Trends.

MeSH terms

  • Cohort Studies
  • Denmark / epidemiology
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping*
  • Registries
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / epidemiology
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / etiology
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / therapy