Associations Between Openness Facets, Prejudice, and Tolerance: A Scoping Review With Meta-Analysis

Front Psychol. 2021 Sep 28:12:707652. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.707652. eCollection 2021.


The personality factor of openness to experience, which encompasses curiosity, imagination, and a desire for new experiences, has been associated negatively with prejudice and positively with the closely related value of tolerance. While these relationships have been reviewed at the factor level, there has been no review of research at the lower facet level. This review aims to uncover the relationships between the facets of openness and the constructs of prejudice and tolerance. We conducted a preregistered scoping review with meta-analysis following the recommended guidelines from Joanna Briggs Institute. A total of 2,349 articles were reviewed, with 16 primary research articles (or 17 studies) meeting the criteria for inclusion. Aggregated effect sizes via random-effect meta-analysis revealed that all revised neuroticism-extraversion-openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and international personality item pool (IPIP)-based facets of openness significantly predicted prejudice and tolerance. Out of the three measures [i.e., NEO-PI-R, IPIP-NEO, and honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience personality inventory (HEXACO-PI), and the facets of openness examined], the NEO-PI-R facet of value was most strongly associated with prejudice. In contrast, the NEO-PI-R facet of aesthetics was the facet most strongly associated with tolerance. However, these results should be treated as preliminary in light of the small number of meta-analyzed studies and more primary research studies are needed to confirm the trends found in this review. This review represents the first step in the systematic investigation of the link between the facets of openness and components of prejudice and tolerance and contributes toward explaining prejudice and tolerance.

Keywords: attitudes; facet; openness to experience; personality; prejudice; tolerance; trait.

Publication types

  • Review