Osteoporosis therapies and their mechanisms of action (Review)

Exp Ther Med. 2021 Dec;22(6):1379. doi: 10.3892/etm.2021.10815. Epub 2021 Sep 28.


Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects millions of patients worldwide and is most common in menopausal women. The main characteristics of osteoporosis are low bone density and increased risk of fractures due to deterioration of the bone architecture. Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that is difficult to treat; thus, investigations into novel effective therapeutic methods are required. A number of studies have focused on determining the most effective treatment options for this disease. There are several treatment options for osteoporosis that differ depending on the characteristics of the disease, and these include both well-established and newly developed drugs. The present review focuses on the various drugs available for osteoporosis, the associated mechanisms of action and the methods of administration.

Keywords: bone formation; bone remodeling; bone resorption; fracture; menopause; osteoblast; osteoclast; osteoporosis treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

Grants and funding

Funding: The present study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education in Korea (grant nos. NRF-2021R1I1A3046499, NRF-2021R1I1A1A01049248 and NRF-2019R1G1A1100099).