COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers and its socio-demographic determinants in Abia State, Southeastern Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

Pan Afr Med J. 2021 Sep 3;40:10. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2021.40.10.29816. eCollection 2021.


Introduction: healthcare workers are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection with ease of infection transmissibility to coworkers and patients. Vaccine hesitancy rates of 56% and up to 25% have been reported among healthcare workers in US and China respectively. Vaccination is known as the most effective strategy to combat infectious diseases. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine plays a major role in combating the pandemic. This study assessed the sociodemographic factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in Abia State.

Methods: a cross-sectional study among 422 healthcare workers was conducted in Abia State with an online-based questionnaire. The questionnaire extracted information on socio-demographics and willingness to take vaccine uptake. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate frequencies and proportions. Bivariate analysis was used to test the association between the socio-demographic factors and the outcome variable (vaccine hesitancy). Logistic regression was conducted to identify the predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The level of significance was 5%.

Results: mean age of the respondents was 40.6 ± 9.5 years and 67.1% were females The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy rate was 50.5% (95%CI: 45.6%-55.3%). Socio-demographic factors included age, marital status, location of practice, profession, and income. Vaccine Hesitancy was predicted significantly by younger age (aOR=9.34, 95%CI:2.01-43.39), marital status (single) (aOR=4.97, 95%CI:1.46-16.97), lower income (aOR=2.84, 95%CI:1.32-6.08), and profession - Doctor (aOR=0.28, 95%CI:0.11-0.70), Nurse (aOR=0.31, 95%CI:0.15-0.64) and other allied health professionals (aOR=0.22, 95%CI:0.10-0.44).

Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was high among healthcare workers. Significant sociodemographic predictors influence the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine. We recommend that the Federal and State Ministries of Health conduct awareness campaigns targeting the younger age group, singles, lower income class, and non-clinical staff.

Keywords: COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccine; healthcare workers; pandemic; vaccine hesitancy.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • COVID-19 / prevention & control
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Health Personnel / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Male
  • Marital Status
  • Middle Aged
  • Nigeria
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data*
  • Vaccination Refusal / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult


  • COVID-19 Vaccines