Hemodynamic monitoring and management of pediatric septic shock

Biomed J. 2022 Feb;45(1):63-73. doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2021.10.004. Epub 2021 Oct 12.


Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Furthermore, refractory septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome are the most critical groups which account for a high mortality rate in pediatric sepsis, and their clinical course often deteriorates rapidly. Resuscitation based on hemodynamics can provide objective values for identifying the severity of sepsis and monitoring the treatment response. Hemodynamics in sepsis can be divided into two groups: basic and advanced hemodynamic parameters. Previous therapeutic guidance of early-goal directed therapy (EGDT), which resuscitated based on the basic hemodynamics (central venous pressure and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2)) has lost its advantage compared with "usual care". Optimization of advanced hemodynamics, such as cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, has now been endorsed as better therapeutic guidance for sepsis. Despite this, there are still some important hemodynamics associated with prognosis. In this article, we summarize the common techniques for hemodynamic monitoring, list important hemodynamic parameters related to outcomes, and update evidence-based therapeutic recommendations for optimizing resuscitation in pediatric septic shock.

Keywords: Children; Hemodynamic monitoring; Hemodynamics; Septic shock; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Hemodynamic Monitoring*
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Sepsis* / therapy
  • Shock, Septic* / diagnosis
  • Shock, Septic* / therapy