Pathophysiology of Takotsubo syndrome - a joint scientific statement from the Heart Failure Association Takotsubo Syndrome Study Group and Myocardial Function Working Group of the European Society of Cardiology - Part 2: vascular pathophysiology, gender and sex hormones, genetics, chronic cardiovascular problems and clinical implications

Eur J Heart Fail. 2022 Feb;24(2):274-286. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.2368. Epub 2021 Nov 3.


While the first part of the scientific statement on the pathophysiology of Takotsubo syndrome was focused on catecholamines and the sympathetic nervous system, in the second part we focus on the vascular pathophysiology including coronary and systemic vascular responses, the role of the central and peripheral nervous systems during the acute phase and abnormalities in the subacute phase, the gender differences and integrated effects of sex hormones, genetics of Takotsubo syndrome including insights from microRNA studies and inducible pluripotent stem cell models of Takotsubo syndrome. We then discuss the chronic abnormalities of cardiovascular physiology in survivors, the limitations of current clinical and preclinical studies, the implications of the knowledge of pathophysiology for clinical management and future perspectives and directions of research.

Keywords: Genetics; Inducible pluripotent stem cell models; Nervous system; Oestrogen; Pathophysiology; Takotsubo syndrome; Vascular; microRNA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiology*
  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • Heart Failure* / genetics
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs*
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy* / genetics


  • Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • MicroRNAs