Clinical stage II seminoma: management options

World J Urol. 2022 Feb;40(2):343-348. doi: 10.1007/s00345-021-03854-8. Epub 2021 Oct 16.


Introduction: The management of clinical stage II seminoma has evolved with a recent emphasis on minimizing long-term morbidity while achieving oncologic cure.

Methods: In this review we discuss the available management options for clinical stage II seminoma with an emphasis on the emerging role of surgery in this patient population.

Results: Historically, treatment options available to clinical stage II seminoma patients were limited to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Survival rates with these options are excellent; however, both are associated with significant long-term morbidities including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurologic toxicities. Additionally, higher rates of secondary malignancies are witnessed in this young patient population, decades after successful treatment of the primary cancer. Recently, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has been proposed as a first-line treatment option for patients with low-volume metastatic seminoma.

Conclusion: The SEMS and PRIMETEST trials are two studies examining the role of primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical stage II seminoma, and early data show significant promise.

Keywords: Chemotherapy; Radiotherapy; Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection; Seminoma; Testis neoplasm.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Lymph Node Excision / adverse effects
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal* / pathology
  • Retroperitoneal Space / surgery
  • Seminoma* / pathology
  • Testicular Neoplasms* / pathology