Effects of different transferrin forms on transferrin receptor expression, iron uptake, and cellular proliferation of human leukemic HL60 cells. Mechanisms responsible for the specific cytotoxicity of transferrin-gallium

J Clin Invest. 1986 Dec;78(6):1538-46. doi: 10.1172/JCI112746.


We have previously shown that human leukemic cells proliferate normally in serum-free media containing various transferrin forms, but the addition of transferrin-gallium leads to inhibition of cellular proliferation. Because gallium has therapeutic potential, the effects of transferrin-gallium on leukemic cell proliferation, transferrin receptor expression, and cellular iron utilization were studied. The cytotoxicity of gallium is considerably enhanced by its binding to transferrin and cytotoxicity can be reversed by transferrin-iron but not by other transferrin forms. Exposure to transferrin-gallium leads to a marked increase in cell surface transferrin binding sites, but despite this, cellular 59Fe incorporation is inappropriately low. Although shunting of transferrin-gallium to another cellular compartment has not been ruled out, other studies suggest that transferrin-gallium impairs intracellular release of 59Fe from transferrin by interfering with processes responsible for intracellular acidification. These studies, taken together, demonstrate that inhibition of cellular iron incorporation by transferrin-gallium is a prerequisite for inhibition of cellular proliferation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Division / drug effects
  • Cell Line
  • Copper / pharmacology
  • Ferritins / analysis
  • Gallium / pharmacology*
  • Gallium / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Iron / metabolism*
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism*
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology
  • Receptors, Transferrin / analysis*
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence
  • Transferrin / immunology
  • Transferrin / pharmacology*


  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Receptors, Transferrin
  • Transferrin
  • Copper
  • Ferritins
  • Gallium
  • Iron