Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder is an autoimmune demyelinating disease with high relative prevalence in the East Asian population. Clinical manifestations include optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, area postrema syndrome, brainstem syndromes, and diencephalic syndromes. In this case report, we present a case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder that developed 10 days after the first dose of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 mRNA-1273 vaccine. The patient was a previously healthy White female, completely independent and functional at baseline. She presented with bilateral lower-extremity numbness/tingling, weakness, and urinary retention. Although her neuromyelitis optica IgG was negative, the MRI was consistent with neuromyelitis optica involving and spanning longitudinally the C6-T2 vertebrae. She was treated with IV steroids and her symptoms improved. Given the novelty of the COVID-19 vaccines and the paucity of literature regarding their adverse effects, case reports such as ours provide unique information that aids healthcare providers in accurately diagnosing and treating patients, ultimately minimizing long-term neurologic deficits.
Keywords: autoimmune; covid; nmosd; sars-cov-2 mrna-1273; vaccine.
Copyright © 2021, Fujikawa et al.