Toolbox for Distal C-H Bond Functionalizations in Organic Molecules

Chem Rev. 2022 Mar 23;122(6):5682-5841. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.1c00220. Epub 2021 Oct 18.


Transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation has developed a contemporary approach to the omnipresent area of retrosynthetic disconnection. Scientific researchers have been tempted to take the help of this methodology to plan their synthetic discourses. This paradigm shift has helped in the development of industrial units as well, making the synthesis of natural products and pharmaceutical drugs step-economical. In the vast zone of C-H bond activation, the functionalization of proximal C-H bonds has gained utmost popularity. Unlike the activation of proximal C-H bonds, the distal C-H functionalization is more strenuous and requires distinctly specialized techniques. In this review, we have compiled various methods adopted to functionalize distal C-H bonds, mechanistic insights within each of these procedures, and the scope of the methodology. With this review, we give a complete overview of the expeditious progress the distal C-H activation has made in the field of synthetic organic chemistry while also highlighting its pitfalls, thus leaving the field open for further synthetic modifications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Products* / chemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Transition Elements* / chemistry


  • Biological Products
  • Transition Elements