Corticoperiosteal Pedicle Flap of Greater Trochanter for Salvage of Old Femoral Neck Fracture in Children: Outcomes After a Minimum 5 Years Follow-up

J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2022 Apr 6;104(Suppl 2):61-67. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.20.00484.

Abstract

Background: Old femoral neck fracture (OFNF) generally refers to fractures for more than 3 weeks. Corticoperiosteal pedicle flap of greater trochanter (CPPF-GT) was designed to restore blood supply and donor bone for OFNF. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and radiographic results of CPPF-GT for treatment of OFNF in children after a minimum 5 years follow-up.

Methods: Twenty-three patients with OFNFs, age from 8 to 16 years old, who underwent open reductions, fracture fixations, and transpositions of CPPF-GTs were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and radiological outcomes, including union, nonunion, avascular necrosis of femoral head, limb shortening, coxa vara, premature epiphyseal closure and Ratliff's assessment, were investigated in the postoperative follow-up. The results were compared with previously published joint-salvage study of OFNFs.

Results: All patients were followed for an average of 5.9 years (range: 5 to 10 years). All cases (100%) achieved hip unions at an average duration of 3.5 months (range: 2.5 to 5 months). No nonunion hip was observed. Three hips (13.0%) progressed to avascular necrosis of femoral head after 1.5 to 3 years of operation, respectively, and the revision surgeries to hip replacements were conducted. Premature epiphyseal closures were observed in 3 hips. Three hips visibly presented an average 2 cm shortening of the femoral neck. Coxa vara deformities were observed in 2 hips. According to the Ratliff's criteria, there were 20 cases (87.0%) with satisfactory union, good results were achieved in 17 cases, fair results in 3 cases, and poor result in 3 cases.

Conclusions: Corticoperiosteal pedicle flap of greater trochanter is an effective and desirable option for treating old femoral neck fractures in children with a low rate of avascular necrosis and without nonunion.

Level of evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Coxa Vara*
  • Femoral Neck Fractures* / surgery
  • Femur Head
  • Femur Head Necrosis* / etiology
  • Femur Head Necrosis* / surgery
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome