5-IP 7 is a GPCR messenger mediating neural control of synaptotagmin-dependent insulin exocytosis and glucose homeostasis

Nat Metab. 2021 Oct;3(10):1400-1414. doi: 10.1038/s42255-021-00468-7. Epub 2021 Oct 18.


5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) is a signalling metabolite linked to various cellular processes. How extracellular stimuli elicit 5-IP7 signalling remains unclear. Here we show that 5-IP7 in β cells mediates parasympathetic stimulation of synaptotagmin-7 (Syt7)-dependent insulin release. Mechanistically, vagal stimulation and activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors triggers Gαq-PLC-PKC-PKD-dependent signalling and activates IP6K1, the 5-IP7 synthase. Whereas both 5-IP7 and its precursor IP6 compete with PIP2 for binding to Syt7, Ca2+ selectively binds 5-IP7 with high affinity, freeing Syt7 to enable fusion of insulin-containing vesicles with the cell membrane. β-cell-specific IP6K1 deletion diminishes insulin secretion and glucose clearance elicited by muscarinic stimulation, whereas mice carrying a phosphorylation-mimicking, hyperactive IP6K1 mutant display augmented insulin release, congenital hyperinsulinaemia and obesity. These phenotypes are absent in mice lacking Syt7. Our study proposes a new conceptual framework for inositol pyrophosphate physiology in which 5-IP7 acts as a GPCR second messenger at the interface between peripheral nervous system and metabolic organs, transmitting Gq-coupled GPCR stimulation to unclamp Syt7-dependent, and perhaps other, exocytotic events.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't