Photodynamic control of citrus crop diseases

World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Oct 19;37(12):199. doi: 10.1007/s11274-021-03171-7.


Citrus are economically important fruit crops to which infectious diseases like citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subs. citri, citrus variegated chlorosis caused by Xylella fastidiosa, "huanglongbing" associated with the presence of Candidatus liberibacter species, anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and citrus black spot caused by Phyllosticta citricarpa, impose significant losses. Control measures involve chemical treatment of orchards but often, eradication of infected plants is unavoidable. To circumvent the environmental impacts of pesticides and the socio-economic impacts of eradication, innovative antimicrobial approaches like photodynamic inactivation are being tested. There is evidence of the susceptibility of Xanthomonas citri subs. citri and C. gloeosporioides to photodynamic damage. However, the realistic assessment of perspectives for widespread application of photodynamic inactivation in the control of citrus diseases, necessarily implies that other microorganisms are also considered. This review intends to provide a critical summary of the current state of research on photodynamic inactivation of citrus pathogens and to identify some of the current limitations to the widespread use of photodynamic treatments in citrus crops.

Keywords: Anthracnose; Canker; Citrus variegated chlorosis; Huanglongbing; Photosensitizers; Phytopathogens.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Citrus / microbiology*
  • Citrus / physiology
  • Colletotrichum / radiation effects
  • Crops, Agricultural / microbiology*
  • Photosensitizing Agents*
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology*
  • Xanthomonas / radiation effects
  • Xylella


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Photosensitizing Agents

Supplementary concepts

  • Xanthomonas citri
  • Xylella fastidiosa