The role of Raman spectroscopy in biopharmaceuticals from development to manufacturing

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2022 Jan;414(2):969-991. doi: 10.1007/s00216-021-03727-4. Epub 2021 Oct 20.


Biopharmaceuticals have revolutionized the field of medicine in the types of active ingredient molecules and treatable indications. Adoption of Quality by Design and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) frameworks has helped the biopharmaceutical field to realize consistent product quality, process intensification, and real-time control. As part of the PAT strategy, Raman spectroscopy offers many benefits and is used successfully in bioprocessing from single-cell analysis to cGMP process control. Since first introduced in 2011 for industrial bioprocessing applications, Raman has become a first-choice PAT for monitoring and controlling upstream bioprocesses because it facilitates advanced process control and enables consistent process quality. This paper will discuss new frontiers in extending these successes in upstream from scale-down to commercial manufacturing. New reports concerning the use of Raman spectroscopy in the basic science of single cells and downstream process monitoring illustrate industrial recognition of Raman's value throughout a biopharmaceutical product's lifecycle. Finally, we draw upon a nearly 90-year history in biological Raman spectroscopy to provide the basis for laboratory and in-line measurements of protein quality, including higher-order structure and composition modifications, to support formulation development.

Keywords: Biopharmaceutical; Cell culture; Downstream bioprocessing; Protein higher-order structure; Raman spectroscopy; Upstream bioprocessing.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biological Products / analysis*
  • Quality Control
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared / methods
  • Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods*
  • Technology, Pharmaceutical / methods*


  • Biological Products