Diagnosis and management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

BMJ. 2021 Oct 20;375:n1974. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1974.


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease in infants and is associated with increased mortality, respiratory morbidity, neurodevelopmental impairment, and increased healthcare costs. In parallel with advances made in the field of neonatal intensive care, the phenotype of BPD has evolved from a fibrocystic disease affecting late preterm infants to one of impaired parenchymal development and dysregulated vascular growth predominantly affecting infants born before 29 weeks' gestational age. BPD has been shown to have significant lifelong consequences. Adults with BPD have been found to have abnormal lung function tests, reduced exercise tolerance, and may be at increased risk for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Evidence shows that BPD occurs secondary to genetic-environmental interactions in an immature lung. In this review, we evaluate the various clinical definitions, imaging modalities, and biomarker data that are helpful in making an early diagnosis of BPD. In addition, we evaluate recent evidence about the prevention and treatment of BPD. We discuss the invasive and non-invasive ventilation strategies and pharmacological agents used in the early, evolving, and established phases of BPD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / diagnosis*
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / etiology
  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature