TGFβ expression acts as a biomarker of poor prognosis in prostate cancer. It plays a dual functional role in prostate cancer. In the early stages of the tumor, it acts as a tumor suppressor while at the later stages of tumor development, it promotes metastasis. The molecular mechanisms of action of TGFβ are largely understood through the canonical and non-canonical signal transduction pathways. Our understanding of the mechanisms that establish transient TGFβ stimulation into stable gene expression patterns remains incomplete. Epigenetic marks like histone H3 modifications are directly linked with gene expression and they play an important role in tumorigenesis. In this report, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to identify the genome-wide regions that undergo changes in histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) occupancy in response to TGFβ stimulation. We also show that TGFβ stimulation can induce acute epigenetic changes through the modulation of H3K4me3 signals at genes belonging to special functional categories in prostate cancer. TGFβ induces the H3K4me3 on its own ligands like TGFβ, GDF1, INHBB, GDF3, GDF6, BMP5 suggesting a positive feedback loop. The majority of genes were found to be involved in the positive regulation of transcription from the RNA polymerase II promoter in response to TGFβ. Other functional categories were intracellular protein transport, brain development, EMT, angiogenesis, antigen processing, antigen presentation via MHC class II, lipid transport, embryo development, histone H4 acetylation, positive regulation of cell cycle arrest, and genes involved in mitotic G2 DNA damage checkpoints. Our results link TGFβ stimulation to acute changes in gene expression through an epigenetic mechanism. These findings have broader implications on epigenetic bases of acute gene expression changes caused by growth factor stimulation.
Keywords: ChIP-sequencing; H3K4me3; TGFβ; epigenetic; histone modification.
© The Author(s) 2021.