Hepatic lipid homeostasis depends on intracellular pathways that respire fatty acid in peroxisomes and mitochondria, and on systemic pathways that secrete fatty acid into the bloodstream, either free or condensed in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides. These systemic and intracellular pathways are interdependent, but it is unclear whether and how they integrate into a single cellular circuit. Here, we report that mouse liver wrappER, a distinct endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartment with apparent fatty acid- and VLDL-secretion functions, connects peroxisomes and mitochondria. Correlative light electron microscopy, quantitative serial section electron tomography and three-dimensional organelle reconstruction analysis show that the number of peroxisome-wrappER-mitochondria complexes changes throughout fasting-to-feeding transitions and doubles when VLDL synthesis stops following acute genetic ablation of Mttp in the liver. Quantitative proteomic analysis of peroxisome-wrappER-mitochondria complex-enriched fractions indicates that the loss of Mttp upregulates global fatty acid β-oxidation, thereby integrating the dynamics of this three-organelle association into hepatic fatty acid flux responses. Therefore, liver lipid homeostasis occurs through the convergence of systemic and intracellular fatty acid-elimination pathways in the peroxisome-wrappER-mitochondria complex.
Keywords: Fatty acid; Inter-organelle contacts; Liver lipid homeostasis; Mitochondria; Peroxisome.
© 2021. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.