Palbociclib is an oral inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 used in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer, and is extensively metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship between palbociclib exposure and neutropenia is well known. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of palbociclib. We performed a randomized crossover trial comparing the pharmacokinetics of palbociclib monotherapy 125 mg once daily (q.d.) with palbociclib 125 mg q.d. plus oral erythromycin 500 mg three times daily for seven days. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed at steady-state for both dosing schedules. Eleven evaluable patients have been enrolled. For palbociclib monotherapy, geometric mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-24h ), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), and minimum plasma concentration (Cmin ) were 1.46 × 103 ng•h/mL (coefficient of variation (CV) 45.0%), 80.5 ng/mL (CV 48.5%), and 48.4 ng/mL (CV 38.8%), respectively, compared with 2.09 × 103 ng•h/mL (CV 49.3%, P = 0.000977), 115 ng/mL (CV 53.7%, P = 0.00562), and 70.7 ng/mL (CV 47.5%, P = 0.000488) when palbociclib was administered concomitantly with erythromycin. Geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) of AUC0-24h , Cmax , and Cmin for palbociclib plus erythromycin vs. palbociclib monotherapy were 1.43 (1.24-1.66), 1.43 (1.20-1.69), and 1.46 (1.30-1.63). Minor differences in adverse events were observed, and only one grade ≥ 3 toxicity was observed in this short period of time. To conclude, concomitant intake of palbociclib with the moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor erythromycin resulted in an increase in palbociclib AUC0-24h and Cmax of both 43%. Therefore, a dose reduction of palbociclib to 75 mg q.d. is rational, when palbociclib and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors are used concomitantly.
© 2021 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics © 2021 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.