Immunoglobulin A nephropathy is the main cause of glomerulonephritis globally and an important aetiology of end-stage renal disease in children. It has been considered an autoimmune disease that can lead to the production of autoantibodies against abnormal IgA1 and formation of immune complexes. These autoantibodies and immune complexes deposit in the glomeruli, resulting in renal injury. At the beginning of IgA nephropathy course, most patients are asymptomatic and the first clinical manifestations in children are macroscopic hematuria and proteinuria. The diagnosis is defined by the detection of IgA mesangial deposits in kidney biopsy using immunofluorescence techniques. The Oxford MEST-C score is the most used classification to associate histological findings and clinical outcomes, being validated for application in children. Recommended treatment options are antihypertensive and antiproteinuric therapy, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, and other non-pharmacological approaches. There is no ideal prognosis indicator but new perspectives are in science's scope to find possible biomarkers of the disease through OMICS's research. This review aims to summarize and to up-to-date the scientific literature on paediatric IgA nephropathy, focusing on pathophysiology, clinical findings, histopathology, current treatment, prognosis, and future perspectives.
Keywords: Berger's disease; IgA nephropathy; glomerulonephritis; paediatrics; pathophysiology.
© 2021 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.